The Secret Ingredient For Anti Aging Products – Active Manuka Honey

Have you heard of manuka honey products? Active manuka honey has amazing healing properties for your skin. This product is a special type of honey that is found in the manuka tree, which grows in New Zealand. We have all heard that honey has excellent health related properties. Naturally, this referred to ingesting it, however now it has been proven to have healing properties for your skin.

Manuka honey products contain a high amount of antioxidants that heal, repair and nourish your skin to make it look and feel younger and smoother. The rejuvenating properties found in active manuka honey help in the regeneration of collagen and elastin.

We are seeing a reprisal of natural products being used for treating skin conditions. There was a time that most people completely relied on the pharmaceutical companies to supply the skin care products.

Natural remedies such as active manuka honey products are more popular than ever. Many over the counter skin products contain chemical ingredients that are questionable in nature. Many of these chemicals are harmful to our skin. The large companies spend their money on advertising and marketing.

The companies that would rather spend their money on research and development are the ones you should look for. Stay away from the products that contain fragrances and alcohols, these ingredients are not good for your skin at all.

Active manuka honey is a natural ingredient found in only the best skin care products. This ingredient helps in skin cell rejuvenation. This is not something that will happen without the assistance of a powerful ingredient such as manuka honey.

Your skin needs the proper nourishment to help with the rejuvenation process. Applying a good manuka skin product at night before you go to bed will allow the product to work while you sleep.

Active manuka honey is good for any type of skin. It will help reduce lines and wrinkles and helps your skin retain more moisture so that it does not appear dry and flaky. It will make your skin softer and more youthful looking and feeling.

You will likely not find these effective manuka honey products in the stores. As we mentioned previously, when looking for the best skin care products, choose a product from a company that does their own research and development and does not spend their money on marketing and advertising.

In conclusion, you can rely on active manuka honey as an effective natural ingredient for fighting the signs of aging.

The Cost of Active Fund Investing

There are many options for buying a group of securities in one product. The most popular ones are mutual funds, segregated funds and exchange traded funds. What they have in common is that these products are an easy way to buy a group of securities at once instead of buying each security individually. The fund can also proportion the securities so that you the individual investor does not have to. There are two main classifications for what type of fund you can purchase in terms of costs. It is important to know how these costs work so you can avoid paying too much for this convenience. These products differ in terms of how they are administered, access to the products and their costs.

Active Versus Passive Investing

Before getting into which of the products are suitable for you, there are some aspects that need to be considered so that you understand what the variations are among the products.

Active investing is when someone (a portfolio manager) picks the stocks that are in the fund and decides how much of each one to hold (the weighting). This portfolio manager would also monitor the portfolio and decide when a security should be sold off, added to or have its weighting decreased. Since there is ongoing research, meetings and analysis that must be done to build and monitor this portfolio, this fund manager would have research analysts and administrative personnel to help run the fund.

Passive investing has the same setup as active investing, but rather than someone deciding what securities to buy or how much of each one to buy, the portfolio manager would copy a benchmark. A benchmark is a collection of securities which the fund is compared against to see how well it is doing. Since everything in investing is about how much money you can make and how much risk it takes to make that money, every fund out there is trying to compare to all of the other funds of the same type to see who can make the most money. The basis for the comparisons is the benchmark, which can also become comparing between peers or funds managed the same way. Comparisons are general in done only for returns. The risk aspect of the equation is handled by looking at what type of securities the fund holds or how specialized the fund is.

How Do I Know By the Fund Name If it is Active or Passive?

The short answer is that you have to get to know how the fund manager operates the fund. Some clues to know more quickly if the fund is active or passive are given next. If they are intentionally trying to pick securities according to some beliefs that they have about the market, this is active management. If the fund description talks about “beating the benchmark” or “manager skill” then it is actively managed. Looking at the return history, if the returns vary versus the index by different amounts each year, then the fund is actively managed. Lastly, the fees may be expensive and have sales loads.

If the name of the fund says “Index” or “Index fund” there is a good chance that the fund is passively managed. If the name of the fund says “ETF” or “Exchange Traded Fund” this could be a passive fund, but you need to make sure of this because some ETFs are actually active funds, but they are managed in a certain way. Most of the passively managed ETFs are provided by BMO, iShares, Claymore, Vanguard and Horizons in Canada and Powershares, Vanguard and SPDR (or Standard and Poors) and others if the holdings are from the U.S. Most of the other companies would have actively managed funds only. If the fund description states that the fund is trying to “imitate” the performance of an index or benchmark, then this implies that it is copying the index and this is passively managed. From the return perspective, passively managed funds will be very close to the index that they claim to imitate, but slightly less due to fees each year. The amount that the returns are under the index will be close to identical each year unless there are currency conversions or variances in cost which may come from currency fluctuations or hedging that the fund may do. Passive funds typically do not have sales loads as they are geared toward people who invest for themselves.

There are some funds that try to mix active and passive management. These products can be assumed to be actively managed, although their results will be closer to the benchmark than most of the other funds, so this is something to consider if the variation from the index is a factor.

Types of Costs

Whatever product you buy, there will be a cost associated with buying it, keeping it and selling it. This will be true whether you have an advisor versus doing it yourself, and whichever institution you go to. Even buying your own individual stocks will have trading fees which you must account for. How much you are paying for each product as well as the advice will make a large difference in what return you will receive at the end of the day.

There are many types of costs to be aware of when you are deciding which products to invest in. This article will focus on the active funds that make up most of the selection for retail investors.

The Management Expense Ratio (MER)

This is the largest cost for most funds and represents the cost of managing the fund. “Managing the fund” means running the investment company, researching the investments, advertising, overhead and the cost for the advisor or sales person when it applies. Administrative costs like GST within the fund and accounting for trades and record keeping are also part of the expense. The MER covers all of these costs in an actively managed fund. The MER is given as a percentage, which is the percentage of the assets that the fund manages or invests over a year of time. If you have $100,000 invest in a fund, and the MER is 2% per year, you are paying $2000 per year to keep this fund. The cost is subtracted from the return and what you see in your investment statement is your return net of fees, or after fees. There are exceptions to this rule if you have a high net worth account or a special arrangement with the fund company, but for the typical investor, this would be true. The Management Expense Ratio is the management fee plus the administrative costs. The administrative costs are usually between 0.05% and 0.1% of the assets of the fund. If the information you obtain states a “Management Fee” instead of a “Management Expense Ratio” you would have to add on the administrative costs to get the true fee. Seek out the prospectus and look up fund operating costs to find exactly how much the number is. In some cases, an advisory fee is also added to the management fee and administrative fee which can be substantial. If your advisor does not disclose this, the prospectus is the next best place to find out what the costs are.

For American funds, the MER would be called the “Expense Ratio” or “ER” which is the same thing as the Canadian MER, but advisory fees are not included in the ER and would be included in Canada for the MER if the product is actively managed. If the product is passively managed in Canada or the U.S., the same names apply, but no advice would be part of the cost since these products are used by people who invest for themselves and would pay for advice separately if they retain it.

MER Will Depend on Class

There are products that have various classes of the same product, the same way there are different models of the same car or the same cell phone. For investment products, the classes indicate how you came across the product, or what restrictions you have on access to the product. For example, Class A is usually a retail class where anyone can buy the product with any amount of money. There is Class I, which can be obtained through an employer or another institution. An example might be buying this product through your company pension plan. There is a Class O which typically has no fees embedded in the return and is reserved for non-profit institutions of high net worth clients that buy direct from the company. There are also classes that are part of different portfolios that are set up by the issuer, like Class F which would be available depending on who your investment dealer is. There are also classes that vary depending on what type of advisor you have and what relationship they have with the fund company. The best thing to do here is ask what class you are being offered and get material form the issuer on how much it would cost. In some cases, you can get the same product in a different class and pay less for it. Some companies may have “Series” instead of classes or some variation thereof. The key thing to note is that different versions of the same fund would different fees, and the differences can be substantial.

Sales Loads

Whenever you see the word “load” on a fund it refers to a sales load. This fee is paid to a sales person for advising you and recommending the product to you for the company. There are “front end loads” which are paid as a percentage of the amount you initially invest. If a front end load is 4% and you invest $100,000, you will pay $4,000 up front just to buy this fund. These funds may have the code “FE” in the fund name on your statement. Note that sales loads are not related to MER fees – they are separate fees. There is also a “back end load” or “Rear end load” which is a percentage charged to you when you sell the fund. These are marked with the code “DSC” or “Deferred Sales Charge”. If a back end load is 5%, and you sell $120,000 worth of this fund, you would pay $6,000 in fees to exit the fund. These funds tend to have a DSC redemption schedule which means the sales load will decrease the longer you stay in the fund. Most companies stop charging the rear end sales load after 6 years of holding the product. Since each company varies, you should obtain the details of this schedule up front and understand how the numbers apply to your holdings. There are also “no load” funds which do not charge sales loads at any time. You may also come across “Low Load Funds” and “Level Load Funds”. Low load is similar to the fees discussed above, but they are discounted or lower than average. The level load idea means that the same percentage of sales load is charged over time.

Some companies charge an early redemption fee if you sell their fund within a short period of time. How short the period is will depend on the institution. In some cases, it is 30 days, but it can be 90 days, 6 months, 1 year or some other time period. This fee is designed to discourage quick redemptions or short term trading of the product.

The best thing to do to clarify which load you have is to ask up front and have it explained to you. If the information is not forthcoming, it may be time to find another place to invest your money or do the research on your own. Note that sales loads only apply to a fund that is sold through a sales person. You may be able to get the same fund without the sales person in some cases. Passive investing generally does not have sales loads – but the exception would be if an advisor recommends these funds and charges you some type of referral fee. This would be another question to ask if you are being advised to buy a passive fund and are not seeing any direct cost to buying the product.

Currency Hedging Costs

This type of fee will occur in funds that trade in non-Canadian currencies and hedge them so that the price you receive would be in Canadian dollars. The cost of transacting the hedge itself is the fee being described here, and it can range from 0.5% to 1% per year. If the fee is not disclosed, assuming 0.5% is the cheapest that it will likely be. If you are investing in emerging market currencies or non-developed market currencies, the hedges are much more expensive to put in place and go higher than 1% per year. This is a cost embedded in the return of the fund, but should be examined to flesh out exactly what you are paying to have this hedged. Both active and passive funds pay the same fee for this type of activity.

The alternative would be to keep the securities in their home currencies and whatever changes happen to the foreign exchange rates would be reflected in the price of the product. The fact that currency exchange rates can change is a risk of your investment, but it is not considered a fee like the other fees discussed in this article. This fee does not apply if the fund price is in your home currency. You may have a U.S. dollar account, buy a fund that trades in U.S. dollars and then redeem this fund for U.S. dollars. Until you convert the money on your own to Canadian dollars, there is no currency charge. You would only have a conversion charge to change the final dollar amount to Canadian dollars.

Referral Fees or Trailer Charges

These can sometimes be called Service Fees. This type of charge is paid to a third party who sells the product to you on their behalf. It can be thought of as a referral fee or trailer fee. This fee tends to be captured by the MER, but this should be investigated with the company you are dealing with as this may vary. This type of fee tends to arise with active management as passive management products usually do not have any referrals attached to them.

Performance Fee

This fee is based on whether a fund achieves a return over a required benchmark – a reward for good performance. This type of fee is common with hedge funds or exotic types of products, but it is sometimes embedded in funds sold to retail investors. Like with most of the fees, ask questions and do your research because this type of fee will be different for every institution and product. This fee is optional in that it usually will not apply if the return on the fund is negative or positive but not that high, but the question should still be asked to minimize surprises.

Fees of Holding One Fund Inside of Another one

If a fund that you are investing in has other funds within it as part of its holding list, then you will pay the MER fee for the fund you are buying as well as the fund that the fund holds. The best way to check if this is happening is to look at the holdings list. If a fund holds another fund, it will be a large holding so a fact sheet with a top 10 holdings summary should provide good information. The actual numbers for each of these items will differ depending on specifically what the fund is and how it is managed. Some of the other fees like Sales Loads and Referral Fees would not apply to a fund held inside of another fund. If the fee is necessary to operate the fund, like currency hedging, then this would be included. Whether a fund holds stocks or another fund can also impact withholding taxes if the fund is investing outside of Canada – particularly for U.S. products. This topic can get complex, so it will not be discussed here. Some funds will have other funds to get access to illiquid markets, or parts of the world that have hundreds of securities. Buying a fund in these cases would actually save on time and trading costs, so it can be justified depending on the market being invested in.

Intangible Costs

The key takeway is that you need to do a cradle to grave analysis of what you have and see the costs from beginning to end of your investment period to get an idea of what is really happening. Ideally, the costs should factor in time spent, effort spent on research, and costs of discipline and assurance which would be available when dealing with an advisor that may not be there when you are doing it yourself.

Where to Find These Costs?

The most comprehensive place that will contain the most detail regarding fund costs is the prospectus. This can be found be searching for the product name and the word “prospectus”. If you do not know the exact product name, you can search the internet by the company name only, find their web site and then search for the product name there. The fund companies will have these documents with the regulator as well as their own web sites and they will be typically in PDF format which can be read and downloaded from your computer. A simplified prospectus would also have the same data that you would be looking for regarding fees.

Applied Presentation – Practice – Production (PPP) As an Approach in Teaching Grammar

“I never teach my pupils, I only attempt to provide the conditions in which they can learn.”
• Albert Einstein

There are several worldwide instructive approaches introduced by expert language proponents for language teaching. Presentation- Practice -Production (PPP) is one among the widely-used methods for grammar instructions. It is a traditional approach but its employment shouldn’t be taken for granted; careful planning is needed for its expediency. Its rudiments direct teachers to enable learning by stimulating learners’ ascending thinking levels through lessons’ well- defined objectives while they are entrenched in its three stages.

In PPP, teaching can be effective when the target language is controlled. Therefore, limiting language expressions as subject matters such as “is, are, am; there is and there are; this, these, that and those; can and can’t; can and could; may and might; proper nouns and common nouns, count and non-count nouns, active and passive modes, positive and negative statements, negative and positive questions with yes -no responses, zero conditional versus first conditionals,” among numerous lessons based from the language program’s sequenced outline being managed. At this juncture, learners need to be defined. Defining learners is teachers’ awareness of students’ comprehension levels, age, nationality and culture where the creation of tasks designs and examples to facilitate effective teaching are primarily based upon.

Teaching grammar structures through the PPP can be more operative when we associate instructive language expressions to students’ real-world environment. By linking natural contexts, their interests are being drawn or stimulated by prior knowledge and experiences. Matters such as their hobbies, films they mostly watch, travels in other countries, favorite actors from around the world, favorite games, happiest and scariest dreams, historical events they are conscious about other countries, folk and country English songs that they listen to, and more can be suggested as thematic backgrounds for students tend to be responsive in class activities when situations they are closely connected to are manipulated. Also, providing these kinds of frameworks reduce students’ learning passivity which is mainly due to lack of interest or absence of knowledge.

PPP’s fundamentals are explicated here in two separate ways. (A) One is through using different language targets in each stage to explain its underlying rudiments, and (B) the other is by an intertwined single target language interconnected to its three stages.

A. PPP Application in different language targets

In the presentation stage, language target is stimulated by demonstration strategies adopted by a teacher’s discretion. The students are expected to observe how new languages are generated from a teacher’s varied way of presenting. It is a fact that it isn’t suitable to feed students directly what their new lessons are. In here, it is favorable to hear teacher say, “We have a new grammar lesson today that connects to your favorite sports players around the world”. “Can you tell me the names of your favorite players?” rather than saying, “We will learn about common nouns and proper nouns.” “Your favorite sports players are actually proper nouns.” Presentation should incorporate discovery method which may take place by the introduction of tasks associated by supporting materials such as pictures, timeline, real objects, cited situations, a film clip depending on teachers’ discretion. At the end of this stage, the students will be aware of the target language, its initial rules and structures, which they themselves have inferred.

Secondly, practice stage is done after the students have discovered the language’s features. Based from a teacher -prepared activities, they apply the rules and structures. Presuming that our lessons are on singular and plural nouns, we can review these to highlight what they have learned in the presentation by having them cite nouns that they see in the second picture and have them list all the words in two columns according to names of things and persons. The students may be tasked to identify each word which is singular and plural from the two original columns that they have constructed enabling them to produce two additional columns: singular and plural nouns for people, singular and plural nouns for places, as facilitated. Together, in each column, the class transforms the words into singular or plural forms. Depending upon the availability of time, the teacher can further introduce some exceptions to the general rules on the different pluralization of nouns. Probably, the teacher provides an activity that demonstrates some nouns whose plural forms aren’t ending in ‘-s’ or ‘-es.’ For instance: child- children, cactus-cacti, radius-radii, memorandum-memoranda, woman-women, man-men, mouse-mice, goose-geese. Additionally, the teacher may feature some uncountable nouns such as: milk, sugar, cheese, salt, tea, coffee, bread and many other examples.

Production is a stage where students’ prior grammar knowledge along with acquired knowledge from the two stages are incorporated under given tasks to display an over-all learning outcome. It is recommended that the production activities should relate to reality for communicative purposes. Assuming that the target language is the present continuous with future meanings, the teacher may ask the students on what they are going to do this afternoon to be answered in complete sentences. The expected responses will be an application of the language’s earlier introduced formula, which is present be-verb + a verb in the -ing form + future time. At this point, the students are expected to produce an example by being specific about be- verbs. It is in this situation that the students are made to opt between ‘is,’ ‘are,’ and ‘am’ although generally, they were using ‘is’ or ‘are’ in the practice stage. Additionally, since the question is about them individually, they have to decide which subject they are going to employ. To add, they will also have to decide which part of speech they are going to use. And since, ‘I’ have been decided, they are aware that pronoun is going to be used specifically the subject pronouns, instead of picking up a subject from nouns. In conjunction to these stimulating activity, students’ cognitive ability continuous to work importantly. Therefore, the expected outputs will be sentences that are introduced by “I am” As an example, “I am meeting my friend this afternoon,” “I am traveling to Islamabad tonight.” Similar to other language focuses, the students are encouraged to manipulate the language expressions for whatever purpose they may truly serve through the integration of the target language’s forms and rules reinforced by their prior knowledge which maybe added with new related language to be processed when follow-up activities such as homework and other forms of enrichment exercises are provided.

B. PPP application in an intertwined single lesson

The most practical way to understand PPP is to perceive it in its three intertwined stages through an explicit lesson that showcases a single language focus along with its corresponding activities to be demonstrated in ascending manner. Below is an example of its application.

PPP will be elucidated through an interactive dialogue between a teacher and students with responses as upshots from the given tasks followed by commentaries that feature some practical learning processes’ significance which conceivably recommend some supportive measures in attempting to achieve an operative employment of this method.

The lesson

The target language is “used to” and the teacher is mindful that the class has already learned some grammatical points such as subject pronouns, subject-verb agreement and past simple verb forms in support to the new lesson which means that in an institutional language course outline, the lessons are sequenced appropriately according to the learning needs of students.

Objectives:

At the end of a 50-minute session, the students are expected to:

1. determine the use of the expression “used to”,
2. use ‘used to’ to transform sentences which are expressed in the simple past,
3. employ ‘used to’ in sharing their previous out-of-school activities,
4. write a paragraph regarding their experiences using the expression, and
5. enhance students” grammatical ability and creativity through expressing ideas in the past differently.

Commentary

Objectives provide very substantial roles in every lesson. Though we cannot cover all the intended outcomes in one lesson, the objectives should cater to a specific type of lesson by involving the three domains of objectives- cognitive, psychomotor and affective. Specifically, “determine,” ‘use,’ ’employ’ are indicators of cognitive objectives. ‘Write’ represents psychomotor and cognitive while ‘enhance’ signify affective. All these stated objectives are expected to be attained in applying the approach involving, “used to” in a class’ featured series of activities. These specific objectives become students’ performance indicators at the end of the teaching process.

Stage 1: Presentation

Teacher: Every one of you must have enjoyed your childhood similar to Munawar’s experiences when he was a schoolboy in Lahore. Listen, to some of his unforgettable activities that he used to do at the age of ten in Pakistan.

students’ answers:

climbed apple trees
went hunting with his father
played cricket with friends
read storybooks at the library
picked fruits during harvest time
helped his parents in the farm
prayed together with his father at the mosque

Teacher: All your answers are displayed on the board. Do you observe something at the end of every response?
Student: There is no punctuation. I mean, there’s no full stop.
Teacher: Yes, what else do you see? See all the beginning words of these answers.
Student: They are not capitalized.
Teacher: Right. Why aren’t they capitalized and punctuated?
Student: We only capitalize and punctuate them when they are sentences.
Teacher: Am I made to understand that these responses are not sentences?
Student: Yes.

Commentary

Even if the lessons are not on punctuation and capitalization, these significant points that popped up have to be processed. It is also in this setting when students are given the chance to determine the differences between a phrase and a sentence. These add to their basic knowledge which may guide them in language acquisition skills. It is a teacher’s responsibility to integrate these important points since these are natural teaching occurrences that surfaced currently in the middle of a teaching process. The teacher should never presume that the class knew about these relevant points for there could be more students waiting to absorb the right rudiments through a teacher’s elaboration. One student’s doubt which was never raised for some reasons could answer many students’ hesitations under these circumstances.

Teacher: Let’s get back again to what you have listened to about Munawar’s childhood activities. What did he do? Let’s change Munawar into another form. What should we use to represent Munawar? Go back to the subject pronouns and choose appropriately the word that we are going to use as a subject.
Student: “He” should be used.
Teacher: That’s right. Why do you think it is “he?”
Students: Munawar is singular and he’s a male.
Teacher: Exactly. This time, will I capitalize and punctuate using a full stop? Why should I capitalize and punctuate?
Students: Yes. We have made sentences. For this reason, we need to capitalize the beginning words and place a full stop at the end of every statement.

students’ answers.

He climbed apple trees.
He went hunting with his father
He played cricket with friends.
He watched TV with his family before going to sleep.
He picked fruits during harvest time.
He helped his parents in the farm.
He prayed together with his father at the mosque.

Teacher: What do you notice in each verb from the sentences?
Students: They are all written in the past form?
Teacher: What made you say so?
Student: The verbs end in- ed.
Teacher Why should we place -ed at the end of every verb?
Students: They happened when he was a child. These action words were done in the past.
Teacher: Also, you will notice that one past simple verb is of different form.
What is this word? Recall your previous lesson about the types of verbs.
Students: It’s an irregular verb.
Teacher: Can we accept this verb?
Student: Yes.
Teacher: Why?
Student: It also expresses past simple.
Teacher: Can you give more examples of these irregular verbs?

students’ answers on irregular verbs

tell -told
break-broke
make-made
feel -felt
see-saw
become -became
say -said
come- came
tear- tore
fly-flew
flee-fled
write-wrote

Teacher: Okay. Can we possibly write these sentences in another way?
What about inserting ‘used to’ before the verb in every sentence that we have made?
Students: Yes, we can.
Teacher: You are correct. Write your new sentence beside each sentence. Add ‘used to’ before the verbs but the main verbs should be changed into the present simple.

Students’ answers

He climbed apple trees. He used to climb apple trees
He went hunting with his father. He used to go hunting with his father.
He played cricket with friends. He used to play cricket with friends.
He watched TV with his family before going to sleep. He used to watch TV with his family before going to sleep.
He picked fruits during harvest time. He used to pick fruits during harvest time.
He helped his parents in the farm. He used to help his parents in the farm.
He prayed together with his father at the mosque. He used to pray together with his father at the mosque.

Teacher: Looking at your second group of answers, do you see how each sentence in every number differ from the first group according to verb forms?
Students: Yes, the first group made has past simple while the other was changed into present simple form.
Teacher: What made the changes of the past simple verbs in your second sentences?
Students: “Used to” made the changes in the verbs into present simple.
Teacher: We all know that the verbs in the first group of sentences are in the past form, and this means all of them were done in the past. When we made another group of sentences, we added ‘used to’ but we have written all the verbs into simple present form. Have we done these changes correctly?
Students: Yes, we have. When we placed ‘used to’, we are similarly rewriting the ideas in the past form in another way.
Teacher: Now, are they the same in terms of tense? Do the pairs have the same meanings?
Students: Yes, they do.
Teacher: Aside from using the simple past form to express completed actions in the past, what else can we use?
Students: We can write “used to + the base form of the verb.”
Teacher: Yes, it is accurate to use ‘used to + the base form of the verb’ to express actions that happened in the past.

Commentary:

The salient points to be observed in here are the utilization of previous knowledge of the language, close linkage of objectives to target language, interconnections of objectives in all activities with the inclusion of motivation. The presentation should be inductive for the students to infer instead of utilizing the deductive method. In using the inductive method, students will have the opportunity to figure out what language is to be learned and how do their structures to suit a specific rule or a general rule which they will soon discover. Also, application of prior language could be relevant as demonstrated by the substitution of subjects. Prior knowledge utilization is a form of refreshing them regarding the importance of previously learned languages. In here, they were given the opportunity to identify the order of the expressions in language constructions. To add, this stage directed learners to form a formula of their own which will guide them to perform series of exercises by stages.

There are some exceptions to the formation of past tense for irregular verbs. If it comes out, it is best to process its salient points in preparation for the practice and production. This should be reinforced by adding additional activities in the presentation.

Stage 2: Practice

Teacher: Let’s have more exercises to further understand the lesson. Here is a list of what a film director did when he filmed a movie in Quetta. Write them in complete sentences using the past simple form and changed each by adding ‘Use to.’

booked his crew in a hotel
talked to the mayor of the town
hired some extra cameramen
gathered other citizens to act as bit players
organized the actors schedules
gave time for performers to read their scripts
threw a party before going back home

Students’ answers

He booked his crew in a hotel. He used to book his crew in a hotel
He talked to the mayor of the town. He used to talk to the mayor of the town.
He hired some extra cameramen. He used to hire some extra cameramen.
He gathered other citizens to act as bit players. He used to gather other citizens to act as bit players.
He organized the actors’ schedules. He used to organize the actors’ schedules.
He gave time for performers to read their scripts. He used to give time for performers to read their scripts.
He threw a party before going back home. He used to throw a party before going back home.

Commentary

It is pertinent that the teacher stimulates the thinking of the students after the transformed examples as reinforcement of the presentation stage. Repetition is a form of reinforcement and a form of meaningful exercise since the students’ are made to think while they perform. After the activities, elaboration of the rudiments of this language focus is of high importance.

When “used to” is used, the original verb form from as simple past has to be in a simple present. It is advisable to have the students discover the changes. Their inference will be a great aid in retaining knowledge. The teacher’s role is only to trigger their ability to infer regarding the verb structure. At this juncture, a teacher is discouraged to feed thoughts directly to the students.

In real communication practices, these two expressions: past simple and ‘used to’ may be mixed up. It is best to emphasize that it is possible to occur. Every student should be aware that what they learned in the classroom are models and that they can be modified in a natural communication whether they are used orally or in written manner.

Stage 3: Production

Teacher: What about you, can you still recall your past activities years ago? Together with your seatmate, list what both of you used to do. Write them in a simple past verb and be able to transform these sentences using ‘used to.’ You will have three types of lists. Both students will deliver a talk about the tasks that they have completed. Help each other in forming the lists.
possible students’ list one (1) no subject with simple past

watched our favorite TV show every day
played football in the field
visited my friends twice
had picnics at the family park
went to Dammam every week
toured Bahrain once a month
travelled to Riyadh City with our cousins.
possible students’ list two (2) pluralized subject with simple past

We watched our favorite TV show every day.
We played football in the field.
We visited my friends twice.
We had picnics at the family park.
We went to Dammam every week.
We toured Bahrain once a month.
We travelled to Riyadh City with our cousins.

possible students’ list three (3) – pluralized subject with expression ‘used to’ replacing simple past.

We used to watch our favorite TV show every day.
We used to play football in the field.
We used to visit my friends twice.
We used to have picnics at the family park.
We used to go to Dammam every week.
We used to tour Bahrain once a month.
We used to travel to Riyadh City with our cousins

Teacher: Get back to list number one and share your ideas.
Students: List number one is introduced by simple verbs.
Teacher: Yes, that’s right. What have you noticed in list number two?
Students: There is a specified subject in each sentence.
Teacher: Correct. The phrases were completed as sentences. Are list number three and number two the same when it comes to tenses?
Students: Yes.
Teacher: Now, as a homework, make a timeline of five exciting things that you did last summer by using dates and past simple verbs or ‘used to’. Write them in a paragraph form by following the parts of a paragraph that we have practiced a week ago.

Commentary

Students were able to form the simple pasts independently, decided the subject to be used and substituted the simple pasts into ‘used to’ by enumerating experienced actions. These imply that students learning in the cognitive way is manifested in the production. Their ability to manipulate the language’s structures and rules through the tasks denote their expanding level of order thinking skills stemming from the presentation and practice stage. It is therefore encouraged that teachers can make the production stage operational by using series of interlinked activities in contexts even if this particular stage is similar to how they intertwined their lessons from the two previous stages. Provision of these activities allows them more opportunities to manipulate currently learned language targets and to apply formerly learned language contents.

Homework is a kind of production resulting to outputs that reinforce or enrich what they have learned. It is also recommended that language a newly learned focus must be integrated with the introduction of a new focus such as giving dates as time expressions. Date can indicate past actions and these are additional language expressions which they can work on in natural communication setting. Moreover, encouraging production’s favorable effects may proliferate among learners when they apply languages that are anchored to their real-life experiences.

There are no easy approaches to use in language teaching even if they seem to be. Teachers have to define their learners and apply some adjustments. Approaches are not done mechanically but rather flexibly based from students’ level and from the readiness of resources. Lessons’ objectives should be realized in the teaching process. Teaching experiences reveal that within a method, a strategy arises. It is also relevant to do some reflections regrading objectives that lead to learning directions. Do your activities relate with the objectives? Are they introduced by the input material? Are they confined in your desired setting? Are these manifested under teacher and students’ roles? Do they connect to the target language? Are they implied in the outputs? If they do, then PPP could be a viable method in your classrooms.

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